Illum.e 2020 O level Answer Key Paper 2 Comprehension
Q1. Look at the heading HOPE FARM and the phrase next to it. In what way does work experience at Hope Farm offer students a 'brighter future'? 
|The Hope Farm helps students develop skills that will be useful in their future careers.|
Q2. Look at the first photograph at the top of the webpage. With reference to the information under the sub-heading Choose from, which skill does the photograph illustrate? 
|The photograph illustrates students learning to look after livestock.|
[One specific skill]
Q3. Students must complete an application form. What two other things do they need to provide? 
|(i) A reference from their school or college.|
|(ii) A letter of consent from parents or guardians.|
Q4. Look at the box Participant feedback. Which phrase in Li Ping's comment would encourage students to apply to Hope Farm? 
|‘My tutor was impressed’ / ‘practical experience in my first written assignment’|
Q5. At the beginning of the text Mrs Morton is taking Grace and Tilly to the library. Explain how the language used in Paragraph 1 emphasises how hot the weather was that day. Support your ideas with three details from Paragraph 1. 
|‘The holiday had found its fiercest day yet’ suggests that the heat was the strongest compared to any other day in the holiday.|
‘The sky was ironed flat’ tells us that the heat was so powerful that it straightened the sky just like a hot iron which straightens clothes.
‘Even the clouds had fallen from the edges in the faultless blue’ reflects how the heat was intense as there were no clouds at all in the sky to shelter them from the sun.
Q6. Give the one word in Paragraph 2 which indicates that the change from shops to offices was gradual. 
Q7. Explain what the following phrases suggest about Grace's attitude to the library and the books in it.
(i) 'this was my sanctuary' (line 13) 
|Affection / fondness (or similar)|
(ii) 'unturned pages and unseen adventures' (line 14) 
|Anticipation / excitement|
Q8. (a) In Paragraph 4, what is the tone of the librarian's comment in lines 18-19? 
(b) What two other things did the librarian do to show her dislike of Grace? 
|She snapped shut the front cover each book / she handed over the tickets and frowned|
Q9. (a) In Paragraph 5, why does Mrs Morton think Grace is going into the wrong part of the library? 
|She thought that Grace should be browsing children’s books / books in the children’s section|
(b) Explain what Grace means when she says 'I need to broaden my reading' (line 28). 
|She would like to read books beyond her age / beyond the children’s section.|
Q10. In Paragraph 6, Grace goes into the non-fiction section. What did Grace experience for the first time there? 
|She experienced the learning of knowledge from the non-fiction books for the first time.|
[Unfamiliar, Ripe solid smell of learning]
Q11. In Paragraph 7, identify the words or phrases which tell us about what Grace hears. 
|What Grace hears||Words or phrases from passage|
|(i) Grace hears people talking||‘a conversation drifted across’|
|(ii) There was a gap in what Grace could hear|| ‘For a moment I lost reception’|
|(iii) Grace could no longer hear anything||‘Disappeared Somewhere’|
- (a) In Paragraph 8, what is the contrast between the atmosphere inside the library and outside in the street? 
|The atmosphere inside the library was pleasant/wonderful while outside the street it was intensely warm.|
‘we left the carpets and the polished corridors and walked into a heat which made the edges of the world wave and swim.’
(b) In Paragraph 8, which phrase suggests that Mrs Morton is a fearless person? 
|‘Intrepid sub-Saharan explorer’|
Q13. The structure of the text reflects the stages in Grace’s visit to the library. Complete the flowchart by choosing one phrase from the box to summarise the main event in each part of the text. There are some extra phrases in the box you do not need to use. 
Grace’s visit to the library
|An angry adult||Managing adults|
|A familiar journey||Exploring an empty room|
|Showing curiosity||A satisfying outcome|
|A dangerous journey|
|Paragraph 1-3: |
A familiar journey
|Paragraph 4-5: |
|Paragraph 6-7: |
|Paragraph 8: |
A satisfying outcome
The article below is about penguins and their behaviour. Read it carefully and answer Questions 14-19.
|The earliest written reference to any penguin is in a Portuguese explorer's account of his voyage to India in 1499. In his journal the explorer, Vasco da Gama, described birds as large as male geese, which could not fly away and which had a cry resembling the braying of donkeys. This sighting occurred near the South African coast and the birds were the|
species now known as jackass penguins. 5
In 1519 another Portuguese explorer, Magellan, referred to his discovery of penguins in South America, a species which came to be known as Magellan penguins. There is little doubt that the word 'penguin' is derived from the Portuguese 'pinguim', originally coined by fishermen to name another flightless bird, now known as the northern great auk. Magellan's sailors would certainly have noted the similarity to the northern bird this strange new 10
version they had discovered, which also had an upright posture.
Penguins were popular with early explorers, partly because of their quaint appearance and their human-like stance, but also because they gathered in tightly packed colonies and so were a very accessible food source. However, the population of penguin colonies
has dwindled in the last forty years, some by as much as eight per cent or more. This is 15
attributed to pollution, as much as fishing and other human activities. Surprisingly, Magellan penguins can still be found all around the southern coasts of South America, where the delicate balance in the eco-system needs to be preserved.
People are generally familiar with penguins from their appearance and posture on land.
Out of the water they are usually awkward-looking birds. They seem to have long bodies 20
on short legs, and their shoulders, or scapulae, are set low on their bodies. The bones of their wings are astonishingly flat and thin, giving them the profile of a boomerang. A penguin's natural stance is with bent knees and an 'S'-shaped neck. When they squat like this, they become almost round, which helps with heat conservation, but they can change
their shape to a remarkable degree. When they stand up straight, they appear very slim, 25
tall and elegant.
When standing erect, they spread their webbed toes so that their 'heels' are above their toes, but they can 'sit' with their heels and their tail ends touching the ground. This triangular contact with the ground is a very stable arrangement. When seated on a low stool human
leg bones are placed in a similar way, but penguins have more tail bones which they can sit 30
on than humans do. In order to insulate their legs against the cold, most of their leg bones are enveloped by their bodies, which come down to their heels. The overall effect is of two extremely stubby legs protruding below their abdomens. The geometry of these bones also makes them very pigeon-toed so, when walking, they waddle with a rolling, rotating gait
which is comical to watch.
But penguins do not always lack grace. In the water, they are transformed. Most penguin species cannot breathe under water, so they mainly stay near the surface to take in air. When travelling, they jump out of the water while moving forward, a manoeuvre similar to the one made by porpoises and dolphins for the same reason. When swimming on the
surface a penguin resembles a rather deflated duck but below the waves they are simply 40
matchless: all penguins are experienced divers, and some species can even stay under water for several minutes; their speed, often as fast as two metres per second, enables them to outswim the fish they prey on. No cheetah, stallion, albatross or condor, on land or in the sky, moves more elegantly or gracefully than penguins in water.
Q14. In Paragraph 1, jackass penguins are compared to two animals.
Which animals are they, and in which ways are jackass penguins similar to each of them? 
|(i) Male geese||Could not fly/ inability to fly|
|(ii) Donkeys||The cries they make/ sounds they make|
Q15. With reference to Paragraph 2, give in your own words the two reasons why Portuguese sailors thought penguins were similar to the ‘the northern great auk’ (line 9). 
|(i) They are unable to fly|
|(ii) They had straight backs|
- Here is part of a conversation between two students, Gary and Su Mei, who have read the article.
(a)Identify two examples from Paragraph 3 that Gary can give to support his view. 
|(i) The population of penguin colonies has dwindled in the last forty years, some by as much as eight per cent or more.|
|(ii) Pollution, fishing and other human activities have endangered the penguins.|
(b) With reference to Paragraph 3, how would Su Mei explain her position? 
|Magellan penguins can still be found all around the southern coasts of South America, so they are thriving in that region.|
Q17. From Paragraph 4, give two reasons why the shape of penguins' bodies makes them look
awkward on land. 
|(i) They seem to have long bodies on short legs.|
|(ii) Their shoulders are set low on their bodies.|
Q18. With reference to Paragraph 5, how does the penguin's structure help to keep part of its body warm? 
|Their leg bones are enveloped by their bodies. This helps to keep their legs warm.|
Q19. Using your own words as far as possible, summarise the appearance and behaviour of penguins on land, and in the water, as outlined in the passage.
Use only information from Paragraphs 4 to 6.
Your summary must be in continuous writing (not note form). It must not be longer than 80 words (not counting the words given to help you begin). 
When penguins are on land, they are often seen to………………………………..
|Be awkward-looking, They seem to have long bodies on short legs, and their shoulders, or scapulae, are set low on their bodies.||Appear awkward with long bodies, short legs and shoulders set low|
|The bones of their wings are astonishingly flat and thin, giving them the profile of a boomerang.||With surprisingly flat and thin wing bones|
|A penguin's natural stance is with bent knees and an 'S'-shaped neck. When they squat like this, they become almost round||And bent knees and ‘s’ shaped necks in their everyday postures|
|When they stand up straight, they appear very slim, tall and elegant.|
|When they stand upright, they seem very slim, tall and elegant|
|When standing erect, they spread their webbed toes so that their 'heels' are above their toes, but they can 'sit' with their heels and their tail ends touching the ground.||With webbed toes spread so they can sit with their heels and tail ends on the ground|
|The overall effect is of two extremely stubby legs protruding below their abdomens.||so two very stubby legs emerge beneath their stomachs|
|The geometry of these bones also makes them very pigeon-toed so, when walking, they waddle with a rolling, rotating gait|
which is comical to watch.
|Penguins walk with a rolling, rotating gait|
|When travelling, they jump out of the water while moving forward,||Travel by jumping out of the water while moving ahead|
|When swimming on the|
surface a penguin resembles a rather deflated duck
|Like a deflated duck on the surface|
|but below the waves they are simply matchless: their speed … enables them to outswim the fish they prey on moves more elegantly or gracefully||But in the water, they move elegantly and faster than their prey.|