Expository Essay Vocab List for General Paper

In General Paper, there's a need to also work on providing felicitous language expressions and wide-ranging vocabulary (refer to the syllabus rubrics) [linkhere]. Examiners will differentiate your language bands based on whether your choice of vocabulary is apt, and sophisticated and appropriate to the essay task.

As such, one way to enhance the language in your essay is to utilise vocabulary which are loaded vocabulary words with complex meanings. Note however, that you should not be looking to inundate the essay with complex words which makes it difficult to use, but instead, appropriately and aptly to provide a deeper nuance to your writing.

This will also be in parallel to what you will see in certain language questions for Paper 2 Short Answer Questions, where loaded languages are used! In tutorials, we will be adapting and seeing how these vocabulary can fit into your essays better too 🙂

Section A: Keywords for Introduction

NoWord/PhraseMeaningSentence
A1Contemporary(Adj.) ModernIn the contemporary world, social media…

 

One of the latest trends in contemporary Singapore is …

A2Advent(N.) The arrival or coming of somethingIn contemporary Singapore, the advent of sophisticated new media technologies has led to …
A3Burgeoning(Adj.) Increasing rapidlyIn recent years, there has been a burgeoning demand for bike-sharing services in Singapore.
A4Ascendance(Adj.) Rising in power or influenceThe ascendance of technological advancements has resulted in a new age of volatility. 
A5Nascent (Adj.) only recently formed or started, but likely to grow larger quicklySpace exploration is a nascent industry that has only recently been popularised. 
A6Copious(Adj.) Abundant in supply or quantitySchools in Singapore are reputed for giving copious amounts of homework.
A7Prevalent(Adj.) Existing very commonly or widespreadAn increasingly prevalent trend in society is the use of e-scooters as a form of transport.

 

New media technologies are becoming increasingly prevalent in our modern lives today.

A8Promulgation (V.) to spread beliefs or ideas among a lot of peopleThe promulgation of the concept of religious extremism has resulted in the discrimination of some religious groups. 
A9Bone of contention(N.) A subject or issue over which there is continuing disagreementThe bone of contention is therefore whether e-scooters should be banned.

 

The bone of contention is the extent to which a child’s potential should be evaluated based on his/her academic performance.

(*Tips: use this when bringing out the debate*)

A10Conundrum(N.) A problem that is DIFFICULT to deal withOne of the most difficult conundrums is the question of whether casinos should be banned in Singapore. Though some argue that casinos should be banned because of its association with crime and immorality, casinos also bring a lot of investments and tourist spending to the country.

(*Tip: please use this only if the topic is something difficult/controversial*)

A11Aphorism(N.) A concise, terse, laconic, or memorable expression of a general truth or principleThe famous aphorism, ‘Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime’ can be used to signify the importance of education in preparing the younger generation for society today.

 

A12Prevalent(Adj.) Exist or very common in a particular time/space.Many diseases like Smallpox were prevalent a century ago and have been controlled by advances in medicine. 
A13Notion(N.) concept or belief I have long since abandoned the notion that higher education will lead to happiness and success.

Section B: Keywords for Thesis Statement

NoWordMeaningSentence
B1Myriad/panoply/multitude/plethora (N.) A wide range or impressive arrayThere are a myriad/panoply/multitude/plethora of reasons that exist to suggest why social media is…
B2Expound(V.) Present and explain a theory/idea in detailThis essay will now expound on the reasons why I believe that e-scooters should be banned.
B3Elucidate(V.) To provide explanationThis essay will now elucidate the reasons why I believe that social media does more harm than good.
B4Inter alia(Adv.) Among other thingsThere are many advantages of using social media, such as inter alia, (point 1), (point 2) and (point 3).
B5Espouse(V.)  Adopt or support (a belief or a way of life)Although many parents espouse the belief that phones are harmful for their students, they also carry many outlying benefits.
B6Egalitarian(Adj.) Believing in or based on the principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rights and opportunitiesFor Singapore’s education system to be ‘truly egalitarian’, there is a need to access the root causes that give rise to inequity.
B7Unequivocally(Adv.) In a way that leaves no doubtSome assert that the death penalty unequivocally violates human rights.
B8Onset(N.) The beginning of somethingWith the onset of winter, the animals went into hibernation.
B9Precursor(N.) Something that comes before something Bad breath can be a precursor to bad gums, and this can lead to gum disease.
B10Momentous(Adj.) important Whether or not to move overseas was a momentous decision for the family.
B11Conspicuous(Adj.) noticeable/obviousShe felt very conspicuous in her pink coat.

Section C: Keywords for Concessions/Counter-argument paragraph

NoWordMeaningSentence
C1Advocates(N.) A person who supports or recommends a particular cause or policyAdvocates of free public transport have often argued that…
C2Proponents/

Adherents

(N.) A person who advocates a theory or course of action.Proponents of gender equality have often suggested that…
C3Critics(N.) Someone who disapproves of someone or somethingCritics often claim that…
C4Abrogate(V.) Repeal; To cancel, destroy, rebuke or voidMany may abrogate online learning, as they believe that students will not be as disciplined in studying the materials.
C5Prima facie(Adv.) Based on the first impression/at first viewPrima facie, it would appear as though religion only results in bigotry and prejudice. This is because…

 

Prima facie, it would appear as though poverty cannot be solved. This is because…

C6Perfunctory(Adj.) Hasty or carelessIt may be perfunctory for one to simply ignore the repercussions of technological advancement.
C7Construe(V.) Interpret (a word or action) in a particular wayIn contemporary Singaporean society, outlandish hairstyles will always be construed as a sign of potential misbehaviour.
C8Assert(V.) State a fact or belief confidently and forcefullyProponents of the view that technology does more harm than good often assert that…
C9Cite(V.) To quote or show proofThey often cite examples such as…
C10Justify(V.) To show that a claim is accurate/rightThey often cite examples such as (1), (2) and (3) to justify their assertions that e-scooters should be banned.
C11Proffer(V.)  offer something by holding it out, or to offer advice or an opinionDetractors of science and technology proffer that it can only solve some problems, but not all problems. 
C12Impediment (V.) A hindrance or obstruction in doing something Government regulation is an impediment to scientific progress. 

 

Section D: Keywords for Rebuttal paragraph

NoWordMeaningSentence
D1Cognizant(V.) understanding or realising something Detractors are not cognizant of the fact that what happens in reality is different. 
D2Archaic/primordial (Adj.) very old or old fashioned Aristotle’s views on women in society are archaic/primordial.
D3Myopic(Adj.) Lacking in foresight, narrow in perspectiveHowever, this assertion is clearly myopic, as it only considers the short-term but not the long-term consequences of (the issue)

 

However, this argument is clearly myopic, as it ignores the fact that there are also many benefits of using social media, which we should not ignore.

D4Over-simplified(Adj.) Too simpleHowever, this assertion is over-simplified as it ignores the fact that there are also many benefits for teenagers who work during the school holidays, which we should not ignore.
D5Jejune/puerile (Adj.) 

1) Immature, childish 

2) Lacking knowledge or experience

He made jejune/puerile  generalisations about how all students were lazy and never did any work.
D6Complexities of reality(N.) Reality is complexHowever, this argument is clearly flawed and fails to take into account the complexities of reality. If public transport is made free, then who should bear the hefty costs of maintaining the system?
D7Quixotic(Adj.) Extremely idealistic, unrealistic or impracticalHowever, more often than not, most advocates often fail to substantiate their assertions beyond mere quixotic ideas.
D8Misguided(V.) MisleadHe described the government's economic policy as misguided.
D9Cursory glance(V.) A quick lookA cursory glance at the relevant research reports would reveal that the benefits of group learning outweigh its disadvantages.
D10Sweeping generalisation(N.) A logical fallacy in which a general rule is inferred from 1-2 specific casesThough there are cases of cyber-bullying on social media, it would be a sweeping generalisation to argue that social media will result in cyber-bullying.
D11Fraught(Adj.) Describing a situation to be filled with (something undesirable)This argument is fraught with problems. Firstly, it assumes a direct causal link between group work and bullying which is not true in most cases. Secondly, by suggesting that group work should be banned, these critics have blatantly ignored that group work does carry many benefits too. Thirdly, the fact that group work is still a popular learning tool implemented by teachers in the classroom…
D12Beset (V.) trouble or threaten persistently Africa is beset/beleaguered with civil wars. 
D13A beleaguered nation.(V.) Beset with difficulties / plagued with problems.
D14Merely(Adv.)  Just, only His argument was merely based on an assumption. 
D15Attenuated(V.) To reduce the effect or value of somethingThe issue raised by critics can in fact be attenuated in various ways, such as pet-training workshops and…
D16Mitigated(V.) Make something less severe, serious or painfulThe issue raised by critics can in fact be mitigated in various ways. For example…
D17Abate(V.) Become less intense or widespreadIf schools wish to abate the impact of social media addiction, then why not completely ban phones from school premises?
D18Apt(Adj.) AppropriateIt may however be more apt to argue instead that…
D19Acerbic(Adj.) sharply or bitingly criticalIt may be more appropriate to look past the acerbic remarks on genetically modified food and look at the potential benefits it can bring instead.
D20Quixotic(Adj.) exceedingly idealistic, unrealistic and impractical To celebrate our debut we would like to invite you to experience the quixotic world of Molton Brown.
D21Undermined(V.) Damage or weaken someone or something She tried to undermine my authority by complaining about me to my boss.
D22Perfidious(Adj.) Deceitful and untrustworthyMichelle sought revenge on her perfidious friend who stole her lottery ticket.
D23Fallacy; fallacious(N.; Adj.) mistaken belief But his arguments are generally vitiated by the fallacy of assuming what they profess to prove. ; The idea that nuclear power can solve the coming energy crisis is therefore totally fallacious .
D24Acrimony(N.) Bitterness or an ill feelingThe acrimony of extreme advocates of animal rights acrimony manifests itself with hateful speech and defamation tactics.
D25Arbitrary(Adj.) Based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or systemThe government cannot take arbitrary measures based merely on suspicion, and not fact.
D26Belligerent (Adj.) Hostile or aggressive The Taliban’s belligerent forces attacked Kabul. 

 

Section E: Keywords for supporting body paragraph

NoWordMeaningSentence
E1Paramount  Importance(Ph.) Most importantOf paramount importance is the point that…
E2Momentous(Adj) important Whether or not to move overseas was a momentous decision for the family.
E3Salient(Adj.) Most noticeable or importantOne salient example that best illustrates the point that e-scooter can be dangerous is…
E4Conspicuous(Adj.) noticeable/obviousShe felt very conspicuous in her pink coat.
E5Egregious (Adj.) extremely bad in a way that is very noticeable 
E6Detrimental(Adj.) HarmfulOne detrimental effect of using social media is that users may become more susceptible to cyber-bullying.
E7Deleterious(Adj.) Causing harm or damageWatching violent television programmes may have deleterious effects on young children.
E8Exacerbate(V.) To make something more severeThe growing ageing population in Singapore is often exacerbated by factors such as rising property prices and an increase in living costs, which collectively discourage people from marrying and having children.
E9Eradicate(V.) To put an end toWhile it may not be possible to eradicate poverty in Singapore, there are many ways in which we can alleviate poverty, such as through strategies such as education, increased government subsidy for the less privileged and also community fund-raising.
E10Alleviate(V.) To relieve/lessen or make something more bearable
E11Imperative(Adj.) Crucial/Of vital importanceIt is imperative that teenagers should do more for the community, as…
E12Indifferent(Adj.) Having no particular interest or sympathyAlthough most schools try to help students develop greater empathy through various programs and activities, I feel that most teenagers are indifferent/apathetic to the plight and problems faced by the disadvantaged in Singapore.
E13Crux(N.) The decisive or most important point at issueI think that what is the crux of the issue here is that marriage is not simply a label…

 

I believe that the crux of the debate is not on whether there are disadvantages of using social media for education, but rather on what we can do to ensure how we can maximise the utility of such a powerful learning tool…

E14Integral(Adj.) Necessary to make it whole, essential, fundamental Reading is an integral part of any child's education, laying the foundation for communication and comprehension skills.
E15Debacle(N.) A sudden and ignominious failure; a fiascoThe recent Singhealth hacking debacle has exposed the poor cybersecurity our country possesses. 
E16Disparate(Adj.) Essentially different in kind; not able to be comparedFor us to finally confront climate change, there is a need for disparate schools of thought to work on common ground and understanding.
E17Elicit(V.) Evoke or draw out (a reaction, answer, or fact) from someoneThe government’s attempts to reduce assessments in education has elicited a wide range of positive and negative responses.
E18Exemplary(Adj.) Serving as a desirable model; very goodAs a device for communication, mobile phones have been truly exemplary.
E19Advocate(N. or V.) (A person who) publicly supports or recommends a particular cause or policyTeachers strongly advocate the use of technology for learning in the classroom.
E20Substantiate(V.) Provide evidence to support or prove the truth ofThere is evidence in abundance which substantiates my argument.
E21Exemplify(V.) Be a typical example ofSuch diligence and grit exemplify the Singapore spirit.
E22Typify(V.) Be characteristic or a representative example ofThese examples typify the difficulties that an average student face in school.
E23Intangible / TangibleClear and definite (certain, concrete); real / Not clear and definite; fantasy.He wants facts and reality in his scope, not intangibles that he can't grasp. / Some people enjoy tangible gifts, while others would rather spend time with friends or a phone call.
E24Inherent(Adj.) Existing in something as a permanent, essential or characteristic attribute The will to survive is inherent in all living creatures. 
E25IntrinsicBelonging naturally and essentialCorruption was the intrinsic factor for Najib’s downfall. 
E26Apotheosis(N.) The ideal example. 

 

He was the apotheosis of goodness.
E27EpitomeHe was the epitome of goodness.
E28AcmeHe was the acme of goodness.
E29Quintessential(Adj.) Representing the most perfect or typical example of a quality or classThe Tuas Maritime dispute is a quintessential example of our frosty relations with Malaysia of late.
E30Envisage(V.) Form a mental picture of something not yet existing or known. Nobody can envisage the consequences of total nuclear war.
E31Perpetuate(V.) Make something (undesirable) continue indefinitelyFears about an epidemic are being perpetuated by the media.
E32Perplexity; perplexities(N.) Complex, complications

 

Increasing perplexities ; Perplexities of international relations
E33Punitive measures(Adj.) Inflict or intending punishment The landowning class in England felt severely threatened by the riots, and responded with harsh punitive measures
E34Fraught(Adj.) Filled with or destined to result in something undesirableThis ill-planned and hazardous enterprise was fraught with the elements of inevitable failure
E35Polarised / polarisation(N.) Division into two groups The current debate polarised along lines of class and race. / There is increasing polarisation between the blacks and whites in the US.
E36Splinter/atomise(V.) to split into fragments, parts, or factions. Military technology failed to fully eliminate the Taliban, but rather caused it to splinter/atomise. 
E37Alienated / marginalised(V.) Cause someone to feel isolatedEven where we least like him we find nothing small or mean to alienate our respect from him. / Women either play a secondary role or are completely marginalised.
E38Scourge(N.) A person or thing that causes great trouble or suffering The scourge of mass unemployment.
E39Incessant(Adj.) something unpleasant that continues on indefinitely The noise was incessant throughout the night.
E40Materialise/ transpire(V.) occur, happenI do not think her idealistic plans will ever materialise.
E41In retrospect / Retrospectively(Phrase, Adv.) Looking back In retrospect, it was a miracle none of us fainted. / Retrospectively, it seems as if they probably were negligent.
E42Zenith/apex/apogee/apotheosis(N.) Peak He was at the zenith / apex / apogee / apotheosis of his career
E43Nadir(N.) Lowest point The situation reached its nadir in March after he hurt his shoulder moving luggage
E44Stifle / impede (V.) prevent, constrain They stifle / impede growth and offer no realistic prospect of a recovery.
E45Postulate(V.) to put forth, suggestMany people often postulate that with technological advancements in education, we do not need teachers anymore.
E46Ergo(Adv.) Therefore, for that reason.I need to spend hours studying this weekend for my exams; ergo, I will not be attending the game. 
E47Corollary (N.) something that naturally follows or something that incidentally or naturally accompanies or parallelsIncreased taxes are the inevitable corollary to any new government spending program
E48Antithesis(N.) A person or thing that is directly opposite of something elseSlavery is the antithesis of freedom. 
E49Prevail(V.) to be or prove superior in strength, power, or influence (usually followed by over)The law still prevails in some states. 
E50Puissance (N.) great power, influence, or prowess.Fidel Castro's harsh puissance over Cuba led to his dictatorial leadership and strict control of its citizens.
E51Vestige(N.) A trace or something that is disappearing or no longer existThe last vestiges of colonialism can still be seen in rural towns around the Philippines. 
E52Testament(N.) Something that serves as a sign or evidence of a claim/factThe fact that there are some celebrities who are role models is testament to the fact that the statement that ‘celebrities can never be role models’ is a flawed one.
E53Intransigent(Adj.) Unwilling to change one’s view or to agree to something. The government’s intransigence on LGBTQ issues is a main obstruction to a free society. 
E54Idiosyncrasy (N.) A mode of behaviour or thought peculiar to an individual.Her worst idiosyncrasy involved repeating back every word that was said to her
E55Profound (Adj.) Of a state, quality or emotion being very great or intense Martin Luther King Jr. brought about profound social changes in terms of human civil rights. 
E56Abject(Adj.) Extremely bad, unpleasant One never knows why these people are thrown into a society where there is no development and these people are living in horrendous conditions of abject poverty.
E57Apathetic (Adj.)Lack of interest, enthusiasm or concernMillennials are more politically apathetic compared to previous generations. 
E58Benign (Adj.) Mild, favourable and not harmfulChina and the US should embrace the concept of benign competition. 
E59Concomitant (Adj.) Something that happens with something else and is connected with it

 

Section F: Chim Like Chimera(Can be used for any paragraph)

NoWordMeaningSentence
F1Faustian bargain(N.) A pact whereby a person trades something of supreme moral or spiritual importance i.e. personal values for worldly, material benefitAdvocates of animal rights would label animal testing as a Faustian bargain, as animals are put at risk for the sake of developing vaccines.
F2Gravitas(N.) Seriousness or sobriety, as of conduct or speech; causing feelings of respect and trust in othersVisuals on social media platforms tend to have an immediate gravitas on the audience. 
F3Penury(N.) Extreme poverty; scarcity; dearthIf nations fail to take appropriate measures now, a country may end up in penury.
F4Elysian(Adj.) Blissful; delightful; of, relating to or resembling ElysiumThe dream to live an Elysian life becomes increasingly distant due to the rise in the cost of living.
F5Saturnine(Adj.) Gloomy, of a person or their mannerThe world has started to take up a saturnine mood due to the global economic recession.
F6Stentorian(Adj.) Loud and powerful, of a person’s voiceThe argument to defer mandatory military service for pop stars in South Korea is stentorian, due to the economic benefits it brings for the country.
F7Stygian(Adj.) Very dark or gloomy; infernal; hellish; relating to the River Styx or to HadesWhile some find thrill in the stygian features of a violent, horror movie, others may find the graphics to be too jarring.
F8Apocryphal(Adj.) Of doubtful authenticity, although widely circulated as being throughThe story of Pope Francis supporting Donald Trump is apocryphal.
F9Paradigm(N.) A typical example or a pattern of something; a modelBeing demure is society’s paradigm of an ideal lady.
F10Archetypal(Adj.) Very typical of something or someoneIt is now increasingly archetypal for parents to be concerned with their child’s academic performance in school.
F11Juggernaut(N.) A huge, powerful and overwhelming force; unstoppable.With a billion hits each day, google is the juggernaut of search engines.
F12Allegory(N.) A symbol to reveal a hidden meaningThe viral photograph of a seahorse clinging to a plastic bag serves as an allegory to the current state of our oceans.
F13Labyrinth(N.) A complicated irregular network of passages or events, which makes it is difficult to find one’s way; a mazeOne cannot simply ignore the labyrinth of conflicting political and sociological interpretations in our world today.
F14Sophistry(N.) A false argument; generally fallacious. Method of reasoningHowever, naysayers put forth sophistry that lacks adequate evidence to substantiate itself.
F15Sisyphean(Adj.) Denoting or relating to a task that can never be completedNaysayers assert that the goal to make education more accessible in a society is a Sisyphean task.
F16Quixotic(Adj.) Extravagantly chivalrous or romantic; impracticalEliminating the environmental crisis is considered to be a quixotic goal, due to its multifaceted nature.
F17Herculean(Adj.) Of extraordinary power; a large extent of difficultyThe agenda to solve worldwide global hunger is deemed to be a Herculean task.
F18Hydra(N.) A multi-faceted problem that cannot be solved by a single effort; a problem that is persistent or presents many sidesThe concern of drug trafficking is akin to a hydra-headed monster.
F19Mercurial(Adj.) Changeable; volatile; erraticWith the manifestation of the COVID-19 pandemic, the world is now considered to be in a mercurial situation.
F20Genesis(N.) The origin or mode of formation of somethingIt is imperative to consider the genesis of the problem, ...
F21Behemoth(N.) Something enormous, especially a huge and powerful organisationShoppers are now more loyal to their local shops than to faceless behemoths.
F22Apollonian(Adj.) Connected with aspects of reason; order and self-control in nature; connected with the Greek god ApolloWith an Apollonian leader, democracy is sure to prevail.
F23Dionysiac(Adj.) Relating to the emotional and physical senses, especially when expressed without control; connected with Greek god DionysusSuch dionysiac behaviours in warlords are prevalent in failed states and anarchies.
F24Avarice(N.) Extreme greed for wealth or material gainMotivated by avarice, the infamous Monsanto exploited the poor Indian farmers into buying infertile GM seeds at extremely high prices.
F25 Grandiloquent(Adj.) Extravagant in language, style or manner Her speech was full of grandiloquent language, but it contained no new ideas.
F26Verisimilitude (N.) the quality of seeming true or of having the appearance of being realThe detail gave the novel some verisimilitude.
F27Quasi-(Adj.) being partly or almost Mandatory arbitration is a private, quasi-legal system of resolving disputes.

 

Section G: Phrases

NoWordMeaningSentence
G1Fissiparous nature / tendencies(Adj.) Inclined to cause or undergo division into separate parts or groups. There were divisive fissiparous tendencies within the political party.
G2Avant garde (Adj.) experimental, radical, or unorthodoxHomomorphic encryption is an avant garde technology that opens up possibilities that most people would view as unachievable.
G3Noblesse oblige(N.)  the inferred act of the rich and privileged to act with generosity to the less fortunate 

 

The notion of noblesse oblige was part of the ethic of the country gentleman.

More should be done out of noblesse oblige. 

G4Double Edged Sword(Adj.) Something which is both beneficial and harmful at the same timeThe use of mobile phones in school is a double edged sword.
G5Clarion call(N.) A strongly expressed demand request for actionProponents of banning e-scooters have often tried to sound a clarion call for more regulation to be implemented.
G6Faute de mieux(Adv.) For the lack of anything better The Hong Kong government decided to cull hamsters over fears of the Delta variant spreading, faute de mieux. 
G7Raison d’être(N.) Reason or justification of existence Chinese communism’s raison d’être is the unity, stability, growth, and strength of China.
G8Magnum opus (N.) the greatest achievement Leonardo da Vinci is known for many things, but the Mona Lisa was his great magnum opus.
G9Bona fide (Adj.) genuine, real The opposition made a bona fide proposal. 
G10Status quo (N.) the state of existing affairs The government implemented policies to maintain the status quo of the economy. 
G11Deus ex machina(N.) an artificial or improbable means of resolving a conflict is used. The rapid retreat of American troops from Kabul was a dues ex machina to the long standing conflict in Afghanistan. 
G12Exempli gratia (Adv.) for example Exempli gratia, Monsanto is a company that exploits farmers for profits. 
G13Ad infinitum (Adj, Adv) without end or limit The point about democracy has been made ad infinitum during the debate.
G14De facto (Adv.) In fact

(Adj.) By right, existing 

the country was de facto (adv) divided between two states

China has a de facto (adj) one-party system

G15Ipso facto (Adv.) by that very fact or act: as an inevitable resultIf we refuse to tolerate bigotry, do we become, ipso facto, as intolerant as those whom we condemn?
G16A priori (Adj.) relating to or derived by reasoning from self-evident propositionsOne can claim, a priori, that all bachelors are single.
G17 A posteriori (Adj.) relating to or derived by reasoning from observed factsOne can observe, a posteriori, some bachelors are happy.
G18 Ad nauseam(Adj.) to a sickening or excessive degreePro-life and pro-choice are sides to an argument that has been discussed and analyzed ad nauseam.
G19 Ad hominem ​​(Adj.) appealing to feelings or prejudices rather than intellectDetractors are relying on anecdotes, arguing ad hominem, decreasing their credibility. 
G20 Quid pro quo(N.) An exchange of value necessary for a contract to take place.The pardon was a quid pro quo for their help in releasing hostages

 

Topic Specific 

Vocabulary

 

Meaning 
Obfuscate (media) to make something less clear and harder to understand, especially intentionally
Incumbent (politics) officially having the named position
Interpellation (politics, culture) an occasion when questions are formally asked of a government minister in parliament; the process of asking questions in this way: 

The controversy became the subject of an interpellation in the Chambre des Députés.

Shibboleths (National identity) a belief or custom that is not now considered as important and correct as it was in the past
Calumniating

[Calumniate]

(Media) 

to make statements about someone that are not true and that are damaging to their reputation